Maternal & Child Health Nursing: An Overview for the PNLE with Free Practice Questions


Maternal and Child Health Nursing is a specialized area of nursing practice that focuses on the health and well-being of mothers and children. This field encompasses a wide range of care from preconception to postpartum and newborn care. Nurses in this specialty play a crucial role in promoting healthy pregnancies, safe deliveries, and the overall health of children. Preparing for the Philippine Nurse Licensure Examination (PNLE) requires a comprehensive understanding of these concepts to ensure competent and compassionate care.

Maternal Health Nursing

Preconception Care
Preconception care involves preparing a woman for a healthy pregnancy. This includes education on proper nutrition, folic acid supplementation, managing chronic conditions, and avoiding harmful substances. Nurses play a key role in counseling women on lifestyle changes that can improve pregnancy outcomes.

Prenatal Care
Prenatal care is essential for monitoring the health of both the mother and the developing fetus. Key components include:
Regular Check-ups: Monitoring blood pressure, weight, and fetal growth.
Screenings: Conducting tests for gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, and other conditions.
Education: Providing information on diet, exercise, and what to expect during pregnancy.
Psychosocial Support: Addressing emotional and psychological needs, including stress management and preparation for parenthood.

Intrapartum Care
Intrapartum care focuses on labor and delivery. Nurses are responsible for:
Monitoring: Tracking the progress of labor, fetal heart rate, and maternal vital signs.
Pain Management: Administering analgesics or providing non-pharmacological pain relief techniques.
Support: Offering emotional and physical support to the mother and family.

Postpartum Care
Postpartum care involves caring for the mother and newborn immediately after birth. Key aspects include:
Monitoring: Checking for signs of postpartum complications such as hemorrhage or infection.
Breastfeeding Support: Assisting with latching techniques and addressing breastfeeding challenges.
Education: Providing guidance on newborn care, postpartum recovery, and family planning.

Child Health Nursing

Neonatal Care
Neonatal care covers the first 28 days of life. Nurses provide critical care for newborns, especially those who are premature or have health issues. This includes:
Assessment: Conducting APGAR scores, monitoring vital signs, and assessing reflexes.
Thermoregulation: Ensuring the newborn is kept warm to prevent hypothermia.
Feeding Support: Assisting with breastfeeding or formula feeding.

Infant and Toddler Care
Caring for infants and toddlers involves monitoring growth and development, providing vaccinations, and educating parents on safety and nutrition.

Nurses must be adept at:
Developmental Screening: Assessing milestones and identifying any delays.
Immunizations: Administering vaccines according to the schedule.
Parental Guidance: Educating on injury prevention, proper nutrition, and health promotion.

School-Age Children and Adolescents
Nursing care for school-age children and adolescents focuses on health promotion, disease prevention, and management of chronic conditions.

Nurses in this area:
Health Education: Providing information on hygiene, nutrition, and physical activity.
Chronic Condition Management: Supporting children with asthma, diabetes, or other long-term conditions.
Psychosocial Support: Addressing issues such as bullying, mental health, and substance abuse.

Preparing for the PNLE

To excel in the PNLE, nursing candidates should focus on:

Understanding Key Concepts: Deep knowledge of maternal and child health nursing principles, including stages of pregnancy, labor and delivery, postpartum care, and child development.
Clinical Skills: Proficiency in practical skills such as administering medications, conducting assessments, and providing education.
Critical Thinking: Ability to make sound clinical judgments and prioritize patient care effectively.
Review and Practice: Regularly reviewing materials, practicing sample questions, and participating in study groups or review classes.

Maternal and Child Health Nursing is a vital area of practice that requires a compassionate and knowledgeable approach to care. By mastering the concepts and skills outlined above, nursing candidates can provide high-quality care to mothers and children and succeed in the PNLE. This specialty not only enhances the health outcomes of individuals but also contributes to the well-being of the community as a whole.

Maternal and Child Health Nursing Free Practice Questions

Question 1: Magnetic resonance imaging is done. Which of the following results does not confirm the diagnosis of hydrocephalus?
A. Site of CSF blockage
B. Enlarged cranium
C. Atrophied brain
D. enlarged ventricles

Answer: C. Atrophied brain
On imaging, it can be characterized both on CT and MRI by enlarged lateral and third ventricles out of proportion to the cortical sulcal enlargement, associated with Sylvian fissure widening and crowding at the vertex.

Question 2: At nine months old, which of the following behaviors is indicative that a child’s development is delayed? He can only:
A. Sit with support
B. Pull himself up to his feet with assistance
C. Swallow liquid from a cup
D. Handle semi-solid food

Answer: A. Sit with support
At 4 months old, an infant sits with trunk support. At 5 months old, an infant sits with pelvic support and at 6 months old, an infant sits momentarily propped on hands.

Question 3: Albie underwent ventriculo-peritoneal shunting. What is the best position for Albie post-operatively?
A. Flat on bed
B. Trendelenburg
C. High-Fowler’s
D. Side-lying

Answer: A. Flat on bed
Positioning: The patient should be supine with the head oriented so that the ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt reservoir lies uppermost. The reservoir is usually located on the right side of the head and feels like a smooth dome under the skin.

Question 4: The nurse expects that the child with epiglottitis will undergo which type of radiologic test?
A. Antero-posterior chest x-ray
B. Postero-anterior chest x-ray
C. Lateral neck x-ray
D. Lateral chest x-ray

Answer: C. Lateral neck x-ray
With epiglottitis, the X-ray may show what looks like a thumbprint in the neck. This is a sign of an enlarged epiglottis.

Question 5: Which of these interventions should not be included in caring for patients with epiglottitis?

A. Maintain the patient on NPO
B. Regularly monitor oral temperature
C. Administer acetaminophen for fever, as prescribed
D. Provide prescribed cool mist oxygen therapy

Answer:B. Regularly monitor oral temperature
Regular manipulation of the oral cavity can lead to a potential risk of spreading the microorganisms involved in the infection

Do you want to answer more PNLE practice questions? Answer and pass your nursing board exam here: https://www.1nurse.com/nle-review


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